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There is a desire to establish the significance of the influence of ethnicity on weight. Besides, there is a need to discover people’s interest in grapes, Ham, and granola bars. These foods, as well, are required to be taken when fresh to enhance healthiness among individuals. Based on the above statements, I developed a study to establish how the respondents loved grapes, Ham, and Granola bars. In the same line, I set the study to observe whether the respondents ate fresh fruits and whether these fruits were healthy. The second test was to establish the influence of ethnicity on weight. The first objective involved observation through focus groups, while the second test involved the chi-square test. The study found that the respondents loved the mentioned foods and ate them while they were fresh. The respondents agreed that the fruits were healthy compared to the other meals. The study also found that ethnicity was a significant influencer on the weight of an individual. In conclusion, people valued fruits such as grapes in terms of healthiness and freshness more than other meals like Ham and granola bars. As well, i concluded that among the significant factors that influence weight is the ethnicity of an individual.

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Healthy living by an individual is infleunced by various factors. Among such factors include weight. The recommended weight is between 144 and 176lbs for those with 5’9” height for adult males. On the other hand, the recommended weight is 131-160lbs for the 5’9” height adult females (Eichen, 2020). Importantly, not everyone falls in this weight category as some are underweight while some are overweight, a condition referred to as obesity. The fluctuation in people’s weight is subject to several factors. Factors that influence weight range from a person’s lifestyle, health, and origin, among others. Specifically, these factors start from the type of meals taken by a person, the sex of an individual, age, history of family and genes, insomnia, and physical activities.
Besides, a race where a person originates from has a significant impact on their weight. For instance, in the united states, black American males were found in 2019 to have an immense weight due to obesity than other races (Saghafi-Asl, 2020). The wellness of an individual also plays a significant role in their weight. It is in wellness where the frequency at which a person takes fruits and the type of fruits/ food that they take to influence their weights. For instance, a person who loves taking lemons and related fruits are likely to boost their immunity, a factor that translates to a healthy weight (Eichen, 2020). The influence of wellness on weight is also a sibjucet to the freshness of fruits taken by a person. There are several studies conducted on the factors influencing weight loss/ gain and people’s preferences regarding the food they consume.
Nevertheless, different conclusions have been made regarding the same, thus creating room for further studies (Pem, 2016). Likewise, the preference for different kinds of meals such as fruits is always been measured quantitatively. However, few research works have been performed regarding qualitative measures, thus further giving a chance for this kind of study.
I designed the study based on two interests. The first one was to determine the influence of ethnicity on weight. Besides, the second study was establihsed to observe the view of people in regards to grapes, Ham, granola bars, fruit freshness, and healthiness.
Study objectives
Qualitative: To establish the love of people for grapes, Ham, granola bars, the freshness of food (fruits), and healthiness.
Qualitative hypothesis: The respondents loved grapes, granola bars, and Ham. As well, the respondents took fruits when fresh and presumed that they were healthy.
Quantitative: to determine the influence of ethnicity on weight.
Quantitative Hypothesis:
H0: There is no significant influence of ethnicity on weight
HA: There is a significant influence of ethnicity on weight
This section collected data using focus groups, a common method for qualitative research, where respondents were grouped and asked questions. Questions were formed regarding grapes, granola bars, Ham, fruits freshness, and healthiness. The data was collected through observation. The researcher observed the level at which the respondents agreed or disagreed with the statements. Recordings were then made regarding how overwhelming the respondents answered the questions. For instance, were the responses unanimous, or were there different opinions coming from different people. Based on this, the researcher then derived conclusions about what the respondents felt concerning different questions, which was the primary form of analysis. For instance, people unanimously accepted that they liked grapes, and from that, I, concluded that they liked grapes.
Unlike qualitative observations, there data about ethnicity and weight was primarily collected using quantitaive measures. The included ethnic communities included Indian/ Alaska Native, Asians, African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Whites, Hispanic, Multiple-Hispanic and Multiple non-Hispanics; communities within the United States of America. On the other hand, weights were classified into four groups: weight loss, weight gain, staying the same, and not trying to do anything. The data was collected from a total sample of 13553 respondents. The variables used in this case were ethnicity (independent variable) and weight loss/ gain (dependent variable). Because the two variables were categorical, a Pearson Chi-square was conducted. A descriptive statistics test was also conducted for frequencies of ethnicity and weight loss/ gain. I conducted data analysis in IBM SPSS.
I established that all the participants liked grapes from the focus group study, as the response was unanimous. Besides, the participants loved different granola bar flavors, with some liking chocolate and others salted caramel, peanut butter, chocolate, and marshmallow. I can, therefore, categorically state that the respondents loved the granola bar. The third finding was on Ham, in which a participant stated fat-free honey, and all participants agreed that Ham is healthy. The fourth question was about food freshness, where all the participants answered that they were consuming fresh fruits. Finally, participants stated fresh fruits as healthy foods and included tangerine, grapes, and bananas. While some of the 9th-grade respondents included Ham and Granola as healthy foods, others denied, which indicated that the healthiness of such foods was subject to individual perception.
Quantitative results
Descriptive statistics
A total of 15624 (100%) were interviewed. Percentage of respondents were tabled with respect to racial background. Most respondents were of the white origin (n=6849, 43.8%) followed by Multiple-Hispanic (n=2756, 17.6%), Hispanic/ Latino (n=2365, 15.1%), black or African American (n=1667, 10.7%), Multiple-Non-Hispanic (n=739, 4.7%), Asian (n=627, 4%), Indian/ Alaska Native (n=163, 1%) and finally Native Hawaiian (n=100, .6%).
A crosstabulation was designed for race/ethnicity and weight loss. For lose weight category, there were 69 Indian/ Alaska natives, 293 Asians, 642 Blacks, 40 native Hawaiian, 2525 whites, 1286 Hispanic, 1398 Multiple-Hispanic, and 306 multiple-non-Hispanic. For gain weight, there were 29 Indian/ Alaska natives, 110 Asians, 418 Blacks, 25 native Hawaiian, 862 whites, 339 Hispanic, 470 Multiple-Hispanic, and 137 multiple-non-Hispanic. For staying the same, there were 21 Indian/ Alaska natives, 93 Asians, 271 Blacks, 15 native Hawaiian, 1005 whites, 359 Hispanic, 398 Multiple-Hispanic, and 117 multiple-non-Hispanic. Finally, for not trying to do anything, there were 28 Indian/ Alaska natives, 110 Asians, 222 Blacks, nine native Hawaiian, 1169 whites, 308 Hispanic, 369 Multiple-Hispanic, and 110 multiple-non-Hispanic.
Inferential statistics
A chi-square test was conducted for the relationship between ethnicity and weight loss at a 5% significance level. The results are shown below.
Table 1. Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymptotic significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 283.843a 21 .000
Likelihood Ratio 273.030 21 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 27.487 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 13553
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have an expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 14.97.
There was displayed a significant relationship between the respondents’ ethnicity and the loss and or gain of weight (χ2(21) =283.84, p<.05). Therefore, I rejected the null hypothesis and made a conclusion that the weight condition of individuals depended on ethnicity. For instance, the weight levels differed between Hispanics and Blacks.

The study was divided into two parts; the first part sought to find out people’s opinions regarding grapes, granola bars, Ham, fresh, and the healthiness of food. Respondents were great admirers of grapes as well as Granola bars and Ham. Respondents admitted to eating fresh fruits. As well, I concluded from their statements that these fruits were the healthiest. The healthiness of granola bars and Hams was, however, not unanimous as their responses differed. These findings were as per Pem and Jeewon (2015), who stated that fruits are not only healthy for human consumption but are also delicious and can be used in treating several infections. They further stated that freshly picked fruits were healthier compared to those that were kept. Finally, they stated that compared to the flesh, fruits were o much benefit to the body. The second test sought to establish the influence of ethnicity on weight loss. I also found that ethnicity and weight loss were related. This finding is in concurrence with the previous finding by Haughton et al. (2018). However, Saghafi and colleagues (2020) differed with my study findings as they stated that not valid evidence had been cited concerning the influence of ethnicity on the weights of people.
The study had two limitations. For the qualitative analysis, focus groups majorly involved observation which lacked quantitative measure. Secondly, more factors influence weight, yet I only included ethnicity; hence there were many confounders.
I, therefore, suggest a future study that will take consider the confounding variables such as the types of food eaten and the prevailing health condition of a respondent. I would also advocate for an entirely quantitative rather than qualitative analysis to identify the level at which people like Ham, granola bars, and grapes.
Eichen, D. R. (2020). Impact of Race and Ethnicity on Weight-Loss Outcomes in Pediatric Family-Based Obesity Treatment. . J. Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 7, 643–649. doi:10.1007/s40615-019-00694-6
Haughton, C. F.-C. (2018). Racial/ethnic representation in lifestyle weight loss intervention studies in the United States: A systematic review. 9, 131–137. doi:10.1016%2Fj.pmedr.2018.01.012
Pem, D. &. (2016). Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Benefits and Progress of Nutrition Education Interventions- Narrative Review Article. Iranian journal of public health, 44(10), 1309–1321.
Saghafi-Asl, M. A.-J. (2020). Factors influencing weight management behavior among college students: An application of the Health Belief Model. PloS one, 15(2:e0228058). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0228058

Appendix: results
Results and Outputs
Attach your completed analyses as an Appendix in your paper.
Focus Group Transcription – Key Themes
Code Number Code Name Summary Describing Code
1 Grapes All participants like grapes. When asked by the moderator how many people like grapes, the response was unanimous. One participant responded that all grapes are good, whether seedless or not. Participant 4 said, “grapes are grapes.” Based on the responses on grapes, the moderator said, “this is a grape group.”
2 Granola Bars Participants discussed the different types of granola bars they each love. One said chocolate, and another said salted caramel. A participant also claimed to steal granola bars from a friend. Participant 2 said, “Sometimes I have peanut butter, marshmallow, and chocolate,”‘ when asked by the moderator what flavors of granola bars do you like.
3 Ham When asked are there any other healthy things that you eat, one participant responded fat-free honey ham. Participants agreed that Ham is healthy, with one participant saying that “Ham is Ham. The moderator then asked how many others think Ham is healthy, and the response was unanimous. All participants agreed that Ham is a healthy choice for them.
4 Fresh Throughout the discussion, participants were asked whether the fruits they were eating were fresh. Their responses always indicated that the food was fresh. For example, One participant stated mandarin oranges as the choice; the moderator asked do you eat them fresh? The participant responded Fresh, and the moderator also said, “I eat them fresh too.” In another response to pears, the moderator asked, “So are the pears like fresh or canned? The participant responds, “They’re fresh.” All participants seem to like eating their fresh fruits.
5 Healthy Participants discussed different food they think are healthy for them. Most options were fresh fruits such as grapes, tangerine, bananas. Others also had other foods they think are healthy options, such as granola bars and Ham. The participants all in the 9th grade insisted that the choices they gave are healthy options, including Ham, which would not be a healthy option to others.
YRBSS Dataset – SPSS Output
N Valid 15266
Missing 358

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Am Indian / Alaska Native 163 1.0 1.1 1.1
Asian 627 4.0 4.1 5.2
Black or African American 1667 10.7 10.9 16.1
Native Hawaiian/other PI 100 .6 .7 16.7
White 6849 43.8 44.9 61.6
Hispanic / Latino 2365 15.1 15.5 77.1
Multiple – Hispanic 2756 17.6 18.1 95.2
Multiple – Non-Hispanic 739 4.7 4.8 100.0
Total 15266 97.7 100.0
Missing System 358 2.3
Total 15624 100.0


Case Processing Summary
Valid Missing Total
N Percent N Percent N Percent

Race/Ethnicity * Weight loss 13553 86.7% 2071 13.3% 15624 100.0%

Race/Ethnicity * Weight loss Crosstabulation
Weight loss Total
Lose weight Gain weight Stay the same weight Not trying to do anything
Race/Ethnicity Am Indian / Alaska Native 69 29 21 28 147
Asian 293 110 93 110 606
Black or African American 642 418 271 222 1553
Native Hawaiian/other PI 40 25 15 9 89
White 2525 862 1005 1169 5561
Hispanic / Latino 1286 339 359 308 2292
Multiple – Hispanic 1398 470 398 369 2635
Multiple – Non-Hispanic 306 137 117 110 670
Total 6559 2390 2279 2325 13553

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymptotic significance (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 283.843a 21 .000
Likelihood Ratio 273.030 21 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 27.487 1 .000
N of Valid Cases 13553
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have an expected count of less than 5. The minimum expected count is 14.97.

This is a statistics class and this assignment must be done using SPSS.I will submit all the information needed. Please let me know if it can be done. Please note I want research question to be on race/ethnicity on weight loss. Does race and ethnicity play a role in weight loss. I included the rubric and assignment.

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