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## Fundamentals of Epidemiology and Biostatistics for Nursing Essay Assignment Paper

Includes questions from “Grove: Statistics for Health Care Research: A practical Workbook, Graded Questions” and other sources.

SGrove, S. K. (2007). Statistics for Health Care Research: A Practical Workbook. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders. ISBN:

This assignment includes 40 points and represents 20% of the course grade. Each question is one point.

Please write your name on the top of each page.

Section I: Grove: Statistics for Health Care Research

A practical Workbook

Instructions: For each exercise section – questions to be graded, in the book “statistics for health care research, a practical workbook”, answer only the specified questions written in bold. Show your calculations and provide rationale for your answers for full credit.

For example: for exercise 1, “questions to be graded”, you need to answer only questions 5 and 7.

Below are the list of the exercise numbers, title and the specific questions that you will need to answer. You need to read the sections in the workbook in order to answer the questions.

Exercise 1: Identifying Level of Measurement: Nominal

Answer questions: 5and 7

5. What number and percentage of the 44 depressed subjects were treated with antidepressant medications? Do you think an adequate number received treatment with medication? Provide a rationale for your answer.

7. The researchers excluded persons from the study who had a history of psychiatric illness. Provide a rationale for excluding these persons.

Exercise 2: Identifying Level of Measurement: Ordinal

Answer questions: 2 and 7

2. What statistics were used to describe the demographic variable Estimated Yearly Family Income in this study? Were these appropriate?

7. Should the demographic variable Educational level be analyzed with parametric or nonparametric statistical analysis techniques? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 3: Identifying Level of Measurement: Interval/Ratio

Answer question: 6, 9

6. Looking at Table II, what descriptive analysis techniques were performed on the interval/ratio data?

9. Are there significant differences between the intervention and the control groups for any of the variables in Table I? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 4: Understanding Percentages

Answer questions: 4 and 6

4. What number and percentage (%) of the total number of respondents had a current CRC test?

6.Explain why the number of total subjects’ data in Table 2 is for 859 subjects when the total sample for the study was 869 subjects.

Exercise 5: Frequency Distributions with Percentages

Answer questions: 4 and 10

4. What level of education achieved by the mothers is the mode for this variable?

Document your answer as both a frequency and percentage.

10. Do you think that this study and its results can be generalized to the United States? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 6: Cumulative Percentages and Percentile Ranks

Answer questions: 5 and 9

5. What number and percentage of nurses documented a different pain score from the grimacing patient’s self-reported pain score of 8?

9. Is this study only applicable to the elderly population? Do you think younger patients’ self-reports of pain are believed and their pain appropriately treated?

Exercise 7: Interpreting Histograms

Answer question: 7, 9

7. In Figure 2, which variable is placed on the x-axis? Which variable is placed on the y-axis?

9. Examine Figures 1 and 2 and compare their distribution patterns. Are the distribution patterns similar? Provide a rationale for you answer.

Exercise 8: Interpreting Line Graphs

Answer questions: 6 and 10

6. The breastfeeding rate post-intervention was greater than the pre-intervention rate over the 12 months of the study. Is this statement true or false? Provide a rationale for your answer.

10. What implications for practice do you note from these study results?

Exercise 11: Using Statistics to Describe a Study Sample

Answer questions: 3 and 8

3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.

8. Can the findings from this study be generalized to Black women? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 15: Measurement of Central Tendency: Mean, Median,

and Mode

Answer questions: 1 and 9

1. The following list represents the number of nursing students enrolled in a particular nursing program between the years of 2001 and 2007, respectively: 563, 593, 606, 520, 563, 610, and 577. Determine the mean, median, and mode of the number of the nursing students enrolled in the above program between 2001 and 2007. Show your calculations.

9. Assuming that a = 0.01, which nursing specialties demonstrated a significant change in popularity between the stages 1 and 2 of the research questionnaire administration? Provide a rationale for your response.

Exercise 16: Mean and Standard Deviation

Answer questions: 1, 4

1. The researchers analyzed the data they collected as though it were at what level of measurement?

a. Nominal

b. Ordinal

c. Interval/ratio

d. Experimental

4. Compare the mean baseline and post test depression scores of the control group. Do these scores strengthen or weaken the validity of the research results? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 19: Determining Skewness of a Distribution

Answer questions: 1, 3

1. The age distribution of people diagnosed with cystic fibrosis is most likely to be:

a. negatively skewed.

b. normally distributed.

c. positively skewed.

d. bimodal.

3. Does a set of scores with most of its values above the mean have a negatively or positively skewed distribution? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 22: Scatter plot

Answer questions: 2and 7

2. What type of relationship does Figure 22–2 illustrate? Provide a rationale for your answer.

7. Does Figure 1 from the Hitchings and Moynihan (1998) study have any outliers?Provide a rationale for your answer.

Exercise 23: Pearson’s Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient

Answer questions: 4 and 10

4. Without using numbers, describe the relationship between the Hamstring strength index 120°/s and the Triple hop index.

10. Consider the relationship reported for the Quadriceps strength index 120º/s and the Hop index (r = 0.744**, p = 0.000). What do these r and p values indicate related to statistical significance and clinical importance? [alpha is set at 0.05].

Exercise 29: t-Test for Independent Groups I

Answer questions: 2 and 5

2. t= –3.15 describes the difference between women and men for what variable in this study? Is this value significant? Provide a rationale for your answer. [alpha is set at 0.05]

5. Consider t = –2.50 and t = –2.74. Which t ratio has the smaller p value? Provide a rationale for your answer. What does this result mean?

Exercise 36: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) I

Answer questions: 3 and 6

3. The researchers stated that the participants in the intervention group reported a reduction in mobility difficulty at week 12. Was this result statistically significant,and if so at what probability?

6. Can ANOVA be used to test proposed relationships or predicted correlations

between variables in a single group? Provide a rationale for your answer.

Section II: USING THE DATA SET DOWNLOADED FROM BLACKBOARD

“Sample_Data_Assignment2_Blackboard.sav”

1. Do frequency for the following variables and interpret the findings:

[1POINT]

Age category, Gender, Bp (Blood pressure), Active (physically active), dhosp (died in hospital).

2. Do descriptive statistics and histogram with normal distribution and interpret the results for the following variables: [1POINT]

Age (years), cost (total cost of hospitalization and rehabilitation), and log_COST (log transformed data to change it to normal distribution)

– Are these variables normally distributed?

3. Is there a difference between those who died in the hospital and those who did not die in the hospital in age (age at admission in years)?

a. What statistical test you will use? Why?

b. Is there a statistically significant difference between the groups?

Explain and interpret the finding

4. Is there a difference between the blood pressure groups in age (age at admission in years)?

a. What statistical test you will use? Why?

b. Is there a statistically significant difference between the groups? Explain and interpret the finding

5. Is there a correlation between age (age at admission in years) and cost (total cost of hospitalization and rehabilitation)?

a. Run correlation between the two variables and report the correlation coefficient (r)[direction and strength] and interpret the results.

6. Are there relationship between patient’s death in the hospital (dhosp) and the following variables:Bp (Blood pressure), Active (physically active).

a. What statistical test you will use? Why?

b. Is there a statistically significant difference between the groups? Explain and interpret the finding

7. Write a summary report for the results of the study and its impact on nursing practice (i.e., summarize the findings from question 1 to 6)

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