Hematopoietic: Cardiovascular Essay Assignment Paper
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Case Study I
The contributing factors on J.D that might put her at risk to develop iron deficiency anemia.
J.D is at a high risk of getting anemia due to a number of reasons. One of the causes is the reporting of heavy, irregular menstrual cycles. Iron deficiency anemia may be caused by heavy menstruation and intermenstrual hemorrhage. Another risk is the close proximity of pregnancies. J.D. has had four pregnancies in the last several years. Iron insufficiency is the most frequent nutritional deficit during pregnancy, according to Camaschella (2017), and it should be supplemented before, during, and after pregnancy.
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The reasons why J.D. might be presenting constipation and or dehydration.
Constipation in J.D. may be caused by a loss of bodily fluids as a consequence of severe bleeding and the use of diuretics, both of which can induce dehydration. Excessive diuretic usage may result in water and sodium loss. Hormonal changes are linked to dehydration; thus J. D’s constipation may be caused by a shift in hormonal levels as a consequence of bleeding.
Why Vitamin B12 and folic acid are important on the erythropoiesis
Erythropoiesis is the process of producing new erythropoiesis, and folate and vitamin B12 are important in this process because erythroblasts need them for proliferation during differentiation. For erythroblasts to operate properly, iron aids in the production of haemogrobin. Inadequate folate and vitamin B12 are linked to unhealthy red blood cells that seem pale and smaller, as well as suppression of purine and thymidylate synthesis, resulting in anemia due to inefficient erythropoiesis (Valent et al., 2018).
Clinical symptoms that J.D. might have positive for Iron deficiency anemia.
Blood loss owing to heavy monthly flow for 6 days and delivery, as well as extreme tiredness and weakness, were among J.D’s positive clinical signs for iron deficiency anemia. The most frequent cause of anemia is iron deficiency. It arises as a consequence of a reduction in iron availability from hemesynthesis, which impairs the production of hemoglobin in erythroid formation (Camaschella., 2017).
Signs of iron deficiency anemia
Excessive fatigue is one of the symptoms of iron deficiency anemia, which is caused by a lack of iron in the body’s ability to manufacture hemoglobin, which transports oxygen to and from bodily tissues and cells. Dyspnea is another symptom of low hemoglobin, which is linked with decreased oxygen flow and a rapid breathing rate. Inadequate hemoglobin decreases the quantity of blood that reaches the brain, causing dizziness, lightheadedness, and migraines.
Appropriate recommendations and treatments for J.D.
The laboratory findings back up a primary diagnosis of iron deficient anemia. A diet rich in iron, such as liver, green-leafy vegetables, and legumes like peas and beans, is suggested as a therapy for iron deficiency anemia. Iron supplements are also part of the therapy. Intravenous iron may be administered if the patient has trouble absorbing iron. The patient may need a blood transfusion if the iron deficiency anemia is severe.
Case Study 2
Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors
A patient’s risk of acute myocardial infarction may be divided into two groups. They are divided into two categories: modifiable and non-modifiable. Physical activities, a balanced diet, keeping a healthy body weight, and quitting smoking are examples of controllable variables (Steca et al., 2017)
Mr. W.G. EKG findings
EKG is used to identify (arrhythmias) in the heart that are caused by narrowed or blocked arteries. Chest discomfort with a crushing feeling at the sterna region that extends to the lower jaw area and neck, nausea, and pain that does not go away with deep breathing are among the symptoms reported in the case and are consistent with an acute coronary event.
Most specific laboratory tests
The troponin test is the most accurate diagnostic procedure that I would recommend. The test is a confirmatory test that aids in the evaluation of a patient suspected of having an acute coronary syndrome such as myocardial infarction. The test distinguishes between a heart attack induced by stable angina and a cardiac arrest caused by unstable angina (Chapman et al., 2019).
Mr. W.G temperature after Myocardial Infarct
High fever is linked to myocardial infarction. 4 to 8 hours after the start of infarction, the body temperature rises by more than 1 degree Celsius. After 4 to 5 days, the temperature returns to normal. Fever is a non-specific reaction to myocardial injury produced by an increase in blood levels of cardiac enzymes and C-reactive proteins after an infarction.
Why Mr. W.G. was experiencing pain during his Myocardial Infarct
Because myocardial infarction is linked with a reduction in blood vessel width, resulting in inadequate blood accessing the heart muscles, the client was in agony during his myocardial infarction. Atherosclerosis and cholesterol buildup in the inner layer of the arteries shortens their internal surface, limiting the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body tissues (Anderson & Morrow, 2017). As the heart pumps blood quickly and forcefully to balance the production and consumption of blood in the heart, this produces angina and ischemia.
Anderson, J. L., & Morrow, D. A. (2017). Acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(21), 2053-2064.
Arumugham, V. B., & Shahin, M. H. (2020). Diuretic. StatPearls [Internet].
Camaschella, C. (2017). New insights into iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. Blood reviews, 31(4), 225-233.
Chapman, A. R., Fujisawa, T., Lee, K. K., Andrews, J. P., Anand, A., Sandeman, D., … & Mills, N. L. (2019). Novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Heart, 105(8), 616-622.
Steca, P., Monzani, D., Greco, A., Franzelli, C., Magrin, M. E., Miglioretti, M., … & D’Addario, M. (2017). Stability and change of lifestyle profiles in cardiovascular patients after their first acute coronary event. PLoS One, 12(8), e0183905.
Case studiesJ.D. is a 37 years old white woman who presents to her gynecologist complaining of a 2-month history of intermenstrual bleeding, menorrhagia, increased urinary frequency, mild incontinence, extreme fatigue, and weakness. Her menstrual period occurs every 28 days and lately there have been 6 days of heavy flow and cramping. She denies abdominal distension, back-ache, and constipation. She has not had her usual energy levels since before her last pregnancy.
#2Mr. W.G. is a 53-year-old white man who began to experience chest discomfort while playing tennis with a friend. At first, he attributed his discomfort to the heat and having had a large breakfast. Gradually, however, discomfort intensified to a crushing sensation in the sternal area and the pain seemed to spread upward into his neck and lower jaw. The nature of the pain did not seem to change with deep breathing. When Mr. G. complained of feeling nauseated and began rubbing his chest, his tennis partner was concerned that his friend was having a heart attack and called 911 on his cell phone. The patient was transported to the ED of the nearest hospital and arrived within 30 minutes of the onset of chest pain. In route to the hospital, the patient was placed on nasal cannula and an IV D5W was started. Mr. G. received aspirin (325 mg po) and 2 mg/IV morphine. He is allergic to meperidine (rash). His pain has eased slightly in the last 15 minutes but is still significant; was 9/10 in severity; now7/10. In the ED, chest pain was not relieved by 3 SL NTG tablets. He denies chills.
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