Diagnosis and Pathophysiology of a Disease
The patient, in this case, is more likely to have asthma, a reversible inflammation of the airways that leads to airway obstruction. When a trigger is inhaled in asthma patients, an inflammatory response occurs, which is caused by the activation of mastocytes (mast cells) through an immunoglobin E (IgE) dependent mechanism (So et al, 2018). A common and severe respiratory infection is considered among the most dangerous respiratory diseases within the country. This essay will discuss the symptoms and diagnosis of asthma, a condition experienced by the 11-year-old boy in question. Racial and ethnic exposures that may influence the disease will also be highlighted.
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The boy’s symptoms include wheezing sounds and labored breathing during physical activities; when exercising at the basketball court, he finds trouble taking breaths. The addition of an allergy to cat dander makes the possibility of the disease present being cardiac asthma. Cardiac asthma is a lethal medical condition where pumping efficiency in the left half of the heart is significantly affected, and thus, leading to increased accumulation of body fluids in the left ventricle, a condition medically referred to as pulmonary edema. Clinical testing can identify wheezing sounds due to blocked airways and irregular breathing patterns that may fluctuate, usually rapid in the patient’s attempt to gasp for air (So et al, 2018).
The IgE-dependent mechanism in activating mast cells involves hyperventilation, which leads to an increase in osmolality in the fluid lining the airways, thus triggering mast cell mediators’ release (So et al, 2018). The result is bronchoconstriction, which manifests itself as wheezing and shortness of breath due to turbulent air in narrow airways. Asthma-related to a particular changeable environment may influence seizure in an individual. In general, asthma is believed to be more common in countries with high levels of air pollution and in communities where there is a risk of exposure to chemicals that can trigger asthma attacks (Feng et al, 2021).
Lung and congenital heart disorders are 20% more common in African-Americans as compared to other races (Brewer et al, 2017). The Latinos come in a close second with other races, also seeing an increase in heart disorders. This is mainly due to a predisposition to situations that expose them to attack by cardiac conditions. Poor lifestyles and poor dieting particularly bring about these conditions. With a generally low income, most of the population in the African-American community cannot afford healthy foods; this makes the option of fast foods attractive. These are foods considered unhealthy for consumption. According to Brewer et al (2017), with a high disease rate, these conditions are most likely to be passed on to their children, making them even more vulnerable to the dangers of the disease.
The increase of thick, sticky mucus in the lungs is the cause of the wheezing sound. Increased inflammations in the nasal cavity and the lungs cause sinuses and difficulty breathing; thus, labored breathing is experienced. Although glucocorticoids may be administered, they may do little to help if exercise is continued; exercise increases the rate at which this disease grows or worsens. Risk factors such as gender (males), atopy, and obesity expose the patient to hypersensitivity of the airways. Common triggers like dust mites, cold air, exercise, and other allergens in the airways have an asthmatic trigger; it is an overwhelming response that causes reversible airway narrowing and shortness of breath (Feng et al, 2021).
Diagnosis and Pathophysiology of a Disease
Brewer, M., Kimbro, R. T., Denney, J. T., Osiecki, K. M., Moffett, B., & Lopez, K. (2017). Does neighborhood social and environmental context impact race/ethnic disparities in childhood asthma?. Health & place, 44, 86-93.
Feng, B. W., He, C. Y., Liu, X. Q., Chen, Y. S., & He, S. R. (2021). Effect of congenital heart disease on the recurrence of cough variant asthma in children. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 21(1), 1-9.
So, J. Y., Mamary, A. J., & Shenoy, K. (2018). Asthma: Diagnosis and Treatment. Eue Med J, 3, 111-21.
11-year-old boy complains of wheezing and difficulty “getting enough air.” Notices it more when he is playing baseball and symptoms improve when exercise activity stops. He says that the symptoms are getting worse and the symptoms are even occurring at rest. Mother says the child is allergic to cat dander and his next-door neighbor in their apartment building recently began sheltering cats for the local humane society. Auscultation demonstrates wheezes on forced expiration throughout all lung fields.
In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following
Assignment (1- to 2-page case study analysis)
In your Case Study Analysis related to the scenario provided, explain the following:
-The cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary pathophysiologic processes that result in the patient presenting these symptoms.
-Any racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning.
-How these processes interact to affect the patient.
Keep in mind that APA formatting is required. References should be no older than five years from publication. Let me know if you have any questions.
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